hat.util - Python utility library

This module includes few simple function/mechanics not available as part of Python standard library.


This is simple function with signature:

def first(xs: typing.Iterable[T],
          fn: typing.Callable[[T], bool] = lambda _: True,
          default: typing.Optional[T] = None
          ) -> typing.Optional[T]: ...

Some of possible application of this function include:

  • accessing first element of arbitrary iterable

    If collection doesn’t implement sequence protocol, accessing first (or any other) element can be done by creating iterator and calling next function. first provides convenient wrapper for this operation:

    assert first({1: 'a', 2: 'b', 3: 'c'}) == 1

    Additionally, event in case of sequences (e.g. list, tuple, range), calling first with default value can be more convenient than additional ‘length greater than zero’ check:

    assert first([], default=123) == 123
  • find first element that satisfies predicate

    By providing predicate function, any iterable can be searched for first element that satisfies required condition:

    assert first(range(3), lambda x: x > 1) == 2

    Default value is returned if there is no elements that satisfy predicate:

    assert first(range(3), lambda x: x > 2) is None
    assert first(range(3), lambda x: x > 2, 123) == 123


CallbackRegistry provides facility for registering/unregistering functions and their invocation. It is usually used as simple event handling infrastructure where additional component decoupling is required.

class RegisterCallbackHandle(typing.NamedTuple):

    cancel: typing.Callable[[], None]

    def __enter__(self): ...

    def __exit__(self, *args): ...

ExceptionCb: typing.Type = typing.Callable[[Exception], None]

class CallbackRegistry:

    def __init__(self,
                 exception_cb: typing.Optional[ExceptionCb] = None): ...

    def register(self,
                 cb: typing.Callable
                 ) -> RegisterCallbackHandle: ...

    def notify(self, *args, **kwargs): ...

Usage example:

x = []
y = []
registry = CallbackRegistry()


with registry.register(y.append):


assert x == [1, 2, 3]
assert y == [2]

hat.util.get_unused_tcp_port and hat.util.get_unused_udp_port

Helper functions for obtaining unused TCP/UDP port. This functions create new socket and bind them to arbitrary port. After binding is completed, sockets are immediately closed and bounded port is returned as one of available unused port.

There is no guarantee that this port will stay unused after temporary socket is closed.

There is no guarantee that consecutive invocation of these functions will return different results.

def get_unused_tcp_port(host: str = '') -> int: ...

def get_unused_udp_port(host: str = '') -> int: ...


API reference is available as part of generated documentation: